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Theology refers to the structured study of the knowledge and nature of the divine. More broadly, this term can also be used to describe the study of religious belief. Theology is taught as an academic discipline in several universities and seminaries, primarily because of its interest over the years.

Theology is mainly known for occupying itself with the unique and exemplary content of observing and analyzing the supernatural. It also deals with the information of religious epistemology. Specifically, it is supposed to ask and seek the answer to all the questions of revelation. Contextually, revelation symbolizes the acceptance of God, gods, and deities.

Theology has been postulated to transcend the understanding of the natural world and is willing to interact with the natural world and its dimensions. In particular, to reveal itself to humankind. While theology has become a relatively secular field over the years, religious believers still consider it a discipline that helps them nurture their surroundings and live. They also believe that theology has helped them understand crucial concepts such as life, compassion, and love. It has supported them in leading their lives obediently to the deities they worship and follow.

Theologians have used several forms of arguments and analysis, such as experiential, historical, philosophical, ethnographic, and others. They use these arguments to help understand, critique, defend, explain, test, or promote the wide variety of religious topics present in the world. Primarily in the philosophy of case law and ethics, arguments often assume the existence of previously resolved conclusions and then develop new analogies to draw inferences in relatively new situations.

The study of theology has been promoted for its ability to help a theologian understand their religious tradition in a better way. It also helps them know any other religion and its traditions, or it may even allow them to explore the nature of divinity in a general worldview.

Theology as a practice is used to reform, propagate, and justify a religious tradition. Additionally, it can be used to compare, oppose (e.g., irreligion) or even challenge (e.g., biblical criticism) a religious ceremony or school of thought. Theology also helps in supporting theologians to address situations through a religious tradition. It helps in exploring possible ways of interpreting the world.

Theology in Religion

The concept of theology has been deemed to apply to only the study of specific religions. The religions that understand theology as an appropriate concept are those that worship a supposed deity or a theos. The practice of such religions is more widely known as monotheism.

These religions presuppose a belief in their ability to ask, speak and reason about this deity or God (in logia). Theologians have suggested that the term ‘Theology’ is less appropriate in other religious contexts, mainly in those organized differently than monotheism, religions without a single deity, or religions that deny that subjects like these can be studied logically. Eugène Goblet d’Alviella proposed Hierology as an alternative, more generic term (1908).

Theology in Christianity

According to the definition of Thomas Aquinas (philosopher, theologian), theology constitutes a triple aspect of meaning. It asks three main questions: What is taught by God, what are the teachings of God, and what leads to God? These three questions indicate the three distinct areas of understanding God as a theophanic revelation, the systematic learning of the nature of the divine, religious belief, and the spiritual path.

Christian theology studies Christianity as a religion, its belief, and its practice. It concentrates on the texts of the Old Testament, the New Testament, and the Christian tradition. Christian theologians have also used biblical exegesis, rational argument, and analysis. Theology as a field of study is mainly undertaken to help a theologian understand Christian tenets and their consequences.

It is studied to make comparisons between Christianity and other traditions, to facilitate reforms in the Christian church, to defend Christianity against objections and criticism, to assist in the propagation of Christianity, to address some present situations or needs, to draw on the resources of the Christian tradition, or for a variety of other reasons.

Theology in Islam

The Islamic theological discussion that stands parallel with the Christian theological discussion and field of study is known as Kalam. Kalam is the Islamic analog of Christian theological discourse, which more appropriately focuses on elaborating and investigating Sharia or Fiqh.

To quote - “Kalam…does not hold the top place in Muslim thought like theology does in Christianity. In order to find an equivalent for ‘theology’ in the Christian sense, it is necessary to have recourse to several disciplines. Additionally, to the usul al-fiqh as much as to Kalam. — translated by L. Gardet

Theology in Judaism

In the Jewish understanding of theology, there has been a historical absence of political authority. This absence of political authority has meant that most theological reflections have happened over the years within the context of the Jewish synagogue and community.

These reflections have included a rabbinical discussion of Midrash (rabbinic biblical commentaries) and Jewish law. Jewish theology is also known to be linked to ethics, much like other religions, and therefore has substantial implications on how one behaves.

Theology in Buddhism

A few academic inquiries within Buddhism have been dedicated to investigating a Buddhist understanding of the world. Believers of Buddhism and other stakeholders of the religion prefer the term Buddhist philosophy to the term Buddhist theology because Buddhism lacks the concept of a theos.

Theology in Hinduism

Hindu philosophy has a tradition of speculating the nature of the universe and the nature of God. God is typically termed as Paramatma, Brahman, and/or Bhagavan in some schools of Hindu thought. God is supposed to originate from the concept of the ātman or soul.

The Sanskrit word for the several schools of Hindu philosophy co-existing in this world is darśana. Vaishnava theology has been a topic of study and learning for many philosophers, devotees, and scholars in India that have lived throughout centuries. A large part of this study comprises classifying and organizing the manifestations of thousands of gods and their different aspects. In recent times, several academic institutions in Europe have also taken up the study of Hinduism, such as the Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies and Bhaktivedanta College.

List of Angels in Theology

Nakir Angel

Gabriel Angel

Julie ann dawson

Pahaliah Angel
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